The very first BTC transmission was stored in the now legendary Bitcoin Genesis Block, and carried an interesting message encoded within it:
"The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks".
The reference to the 2008 financial crisis is very meaningful in retrospect.
It was the birth of a new currency, which would challenge all the financial instruments we knew and used until then.
Bitcoin was born.
Bitcoin is the first generation cryptocurrency.
The One which started it all and showed the world that decentralized financial consensus was not only possible, it had already been implemented in software.
Software which worked so well from its very first release, it instantly conquered hundreds of fans who built online communities around the technology. Bitcoin then spread like fire.
Bitcoin was not only a concept, it was immediately successfully deployed everywhere.
It was a proof of concept for a revolutionary new technology that could be demonstrated anywhere using a common PC running MS Windows and basic Internet connectivity.
People could instantly send Bitcoins to each other anywhere in the world. Not only that but, by just running the Bitcoin software, you could actually earn coins. Early in 2009 anyone running a node would earn 100 to 200 BTC per day by just leaving Bitcoin Core running on its own.
Because of its pioneering role, Bitcoin forms the base for all cryptocurrency projects that would appear shortly thereafter. The first generation of cryptos had been launched.
The first generation cryptos is made up of Bitcoin and all the coins that forked its source code and basic concepts.
Note: Blockchain Forks are not the same as Github Software Forks
A software fork is a concept derived from open source software development and means that programmers decided to take a software project and make modifications to it under a separate source code tree. Blockchain forks means the blockchain of a cryptocurrency has forked and followed at least two different paths forming several chains. Cryptocurrency source code forks often do involve blockchain forks as well, but technically they're two different things.
Litecoin was a famous early fork, and so was Dogecoin.
These software projects simply forked the Bitcoin source code tree, changed the logo and cryptographic hash function from Bitcoin's SHA256 to the more memory-intensive scrypt algorithm. With these simple changes, a new cryptocurrency was born!
Noticing how easy it was to create new coins based on Bitcoin Core source code, other (software) forks soon followed and, while we won't be able to list them all here, they all shared some traits.
All first generation cryptocurrencies have these things in common:
These are the main traits of all 1st generation cryptocurrencies.
While there were variations in source code style, all of them based their initial releases on the existing Bitcoin base.
One of these programming language translations would spark a revolution that would both hurt Satoshi's original vision and also launch the world into a graphics card buying spree.
When Bitcoin mining code was migrated to the AMD Radeon GPU graphics cards' API, called OpenCL, the world would never be the same again.
GPU's could run thousands of times more numeric operations than the best CPU's could ever hope for.
GPU mining killed CPU mining and ended the romantic era of Bitcoin's fully P2P network of full mining nodes.
ASICs later appeared which killed GPU mining and the rest is history.
Bitmain is one of the world's largest ASIC manufacturers and their Antmain mining machines provoked a second revolution in Bitcoin mining. All these developments set the reality farther and farther away from Satoshi's original vision where each node, each PC, mined Bitcoins and participated on the network fully. Mining had gone professional and full nodes no longer mined, but simply verified mined transactions.
For years Bitcoin reined alone. Every other coin which appeared seemed to have cloned the concepts behind Bitcoin. Everyone began releasing their own coins. Joke coins like Dogecoin appeared, Litecoin promised to be the silver of cryptocurrencies whereas Bitcoin was gold. Reddcoin promised to be the social networking cryptocurrency. Iceland got its own crypto, though not official. It was crazy in the early days of cryptocurrencies and it seemed like everyone was cloning the Bitcoin source code and translating it into various ideas, most of which were only meant to make coin creators rich quick.
It was in this context that a revolutionary new concept was launched.
But there was one big concept that set it apart from every other cryptocurrency from the time. Ethereum was actually a virtual machine that ran sophisticated computer programs called smart contracts.
This was the single greatest contribution to cryptocurrencies since the inception of Bitcoin itself in 2009.
Smart contracts made it trivial to create new cryptocurrencies, which we now call tokens. Anyone could write up an ERC20 token, publish it on the blockchain and a new cryptocurrency was born. This multiplied the ICO boom where startups from around the world became able to launch crypto assets in a matter of minutes. Crowdfunding had gone crypto.
The main traits of a Second Generation Cryptocurrency are:
These characteristics turn the very basic transactions from first generation cryptocurrencies into complete computer programs stored on the blockchain.
These programs can theoretically solve any computable problems known to us (computable problems).
Third generation cryptocurrencies are a concept that expands on second generation cryptos and builds further abstractions on top of them. Since we do not have third generation cryptos in full production mode at the time of this writing, please bear in mind that this concept may change or evolve as it becomes more concrete within the cryptocurrency community.
One of the farthest developed projects of a Third Generation Cryptocurrency is Cardano ADA.
While it is still on the development phase of its core system, planning to release its decentralized staking system soon, Cardano has all the traits which, according to the theory we've been able to research about Third Gen cryptos.
The main characteristics that will likely mark this new evolutionary phase include:
The following talk by Cardano CEO Charles Hoskinson gives a complete overview of what Third Generation Blockchains will mean for the cryptocurrency universe:
While third generation cryptos have barely gone mainstream, a new class of cryptocurrencies is redefining the state of the art.
They're cryptocurrencies based on metastable consensus mechanisms, such as Avalanche.
In this class of consensus mechamisms, the network is never fully stable and hard set on a given consensus. Instead, it's flexible to change as long as enough nodes believe it should change.
Fourth generation cryptocurrencies provide extremely high transaction per second scalability, competing with VISA or MasterCard level of TPS.
Avalanche consensus is surprisingly efficient and is able to reach finality within milliseconds. Nodes query each other about transactions in a random order. Nobody knows which node will query which. As such, it's very hard to defraud the system, as you can't predict who'll be asked about a certain TX (vertex). Nodes then quickly form their conviction about transactions, validating them or rejecting them.
In Avalanche systems, there is no set single chain tip consensus. Everyone arrives at this consensus on their own, but each at their own pace. It's the most decentralized cryptocurrency out there - anyone can validate, stake and participate by simply running a lightweight process.
We hope this short overview of first, second and third generation cryptocurrencies has given you a perspective on the evolution of this exciting new technology.
Cryptocurrencies are an open and very fertile field for research and innovative projects are bringing more and more incredible ideas into the mix.
In the coming years will shall see fourth generation cryptocurrencies spring up, building even higher abstractions on top of the previous ones.
While Bitcoin is the father of all these ideas, it is not falling behind technology-wise. Second and third generation ideas are being developed for Bitcoin as layers on top of its core system. Lightning Network is one such layer, which promises to speed up Bitcoin transactions immensely.
The cryptocurrency community is inter-wined and good ideas from one project end up being incorporated into other projects, which is a great catalyst for development.
In less than 10 years since the Bitcoin launch, cryptocurrencies have gone from a crazy idea to a revolutionary concept that has found its way into the world's financial system. And this is just the beginning!