Cryptography

Cryptography is the cornerstone of cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin was made possible by well known cryptographic mechanisms that were assembled by Satoshi Nakamoto in a very creative way.

Although cryptography has been in use for thousands of years, only now has it become a household name due to the popular exposure brought by cryptocurrencies.

Although the subject of highly technical mathematical studies, here we approach crypto from the end user’s perspective, using accessible language and easy to understand concepts.

ELI5 Multisignature Systems by @Gal
A Bitcoin is simply a signed transaction on the blockchain. When you say you own X Bitcoins, it means one or more transactions were signed, using private keys, attributing a certa...
Is Quantum Key Distribution in the future of cryptocurrencies? by @Gal
What would be the use of a data transmission system where the contents of a message changed if anyone simply read it? Secret Key Exchange Imagine if our two dearest cryptocu...
IOTA hash collisions could have wrecked the network if it were fully decentralized by @Gal
Professor Matthew Green of Johns Hopkins University posted an interesting, if not troubling, tweet about IOTA's security: The use of a broken hash function would have been a cr...
ELI5: Cryptocurrency master keys by @Gal
A cryptocurrency master key is a theoretical concept where one specially crafted cryptographic private key would be able to decrypt ciphertext encrypted using any public key. A...
ELI5 Sponge Functions for cryptocurrency development [Hash functions] by @Gal
If you've been following the development of IOTA, and other cryptocurrencies, then you've probably heard the term "cryptographic sponge function", or simply sponge function? Y...
The CryptoNight and CryptoNight Light PoW Algorithms by @Gal
CryptoNight is a Proof-of-Work algorithm which aims to be CPU-mining friendly. CryptoNight Lite A lighter version of CryptoNight which uses memory cache pages half the size ...
Decentralized blockchains can only survive with a valuable token, like Bitcoin, attached to them by @Gal
We've heard this time and again, especially from folks in the financial sector: "blockchain is here to stay, Bitcoin not so much". Is this really so? We disagree, and in this a...
Understand asymmetric AKA public key cryptography by @Gal
For thousands of years the art of encryption consisted in hiding one secret from the enemy. By gaining access to this secret the opponent could decode the message and, perhaps, fu...
What is a “paper wallet”? Doesn’t sound very high tech! by @Gal
Printing secrets on paper doesn't sound high tech, but it's one of the most secure storage mediums available. Documents printed on paper hundreds of years ago can be found in p...
ELI5 What is the Avalanche Protocol? [AVAX] by @Gal
Avalanche is a proposed consensus mechanism which aims to combine the best features of previously existing protocols. If you've tried to understand the Avalanche consensus prot...